References & Demo’s of Transportation
Cities are implementing demanding legislation which set rules about emissions. By using fuel cell systems, the user can easily comply with these demands. Fuel cell technology provides clean and efficient city transportation.
Distributors are hard pressed to find new alternatives meeting stringent emissions demands for distribution within city limits. The HyTruck is one of these innovative solutions.
The HyTruck has been built upon the frame of a Mitsubishi Canter. The diesel engine and gearbox were replaced by a 16kWe fuel cell system, providing the truck with a clean and quiet power source. The fuel cell system has been designed and supplied by Nedstack. A 350 bar hydrogen tank is used for storage of the hydrogen allowing for a range of about 250 kilometers. Refuelling is easy and fast. Just connect the nozzle, press the button and within minutes the driver is on his way making deliveries again.
The HyTruck also has Li-ion batteries and in-wheel electric motors. A power management system controls the power flow, ensuring maximum life time of both the fuel cell and the batteries. Braking energy is stored in the batteries for later use. Thanks to Nedstack’s hydrogen fuel cells, HyTruck does its job without the emissions of a conventional diesel engine. The fuel cell system has been certified by the German TÜV for use in the HyTruck.
The Hytruck was awarded the prestigious European Road Transport Innovation Award in 2007:
Everyday many travellers use public bus services to reach their intended point of arrival. Most buses use polluting and noisy diesel engines. Emission regulations are being tightened, and people are looking for options that are clean and quiet. The HyMove bus is one of the clean alternatives being implemented.
The HyMove bus is a 12m long VDL ambassador bus which has been converted to an electric drive train. It has in-wheel motors and a Li-ion battery pack.
The bus is powered by a 30kWe Nedstack fuel cell system. The fuel cells provide clean and quiet power. The system provides the bus with a range of 250km. Refuelling is easy and fast. Just connect the nozzle, press the button and within minutes the driver is on his way again. All this can be achieved without the emissions of the conventional diesel engine, thanks to Nedstack’s hydrogen fuel cells.
The HyMove bus has entered the regular schedule in 2011. Based on this first Nedstack bus system, improved generations of fuel cell system, based on Nedstack stacks, have been developed. In 2016, new FCEV bus with Nedstack stacks entered into daily operation, while the latest generation is on track to qualify for EU application in FCH project Jive-2.
A Fiat Doblo was used as a platform to acquire more experience with hydrogen cars. The Doblo has been converted to an electric vehicle by the HAN university of Applied Science. Silent Motor Company has developed and built the 2nd generation of their fuel cell system with a Nedstack fuel cell stack to extend the range of the Doblo.
The system has a 10kWe stack and a 100L 350barg hydrogen storage tank. The car has been fitted with Li-ion batteries in the front and back of the car. The Doblo is intended for city use and the estimated range is 200 km.
Fuel Cell Canal Boat
Every day Amsterdam, the capital of the Netherlands, welcomes a huge number of visitors. Many of these visitors will tour the beautiful canals by boat. These boats use diesel engines, which are noisy and emit various harmful particles and gasses.
The Fuel Cell boat was designed to bring down emissions in the canals by converting hydrogen to electrical energy using fuel cells. The boat was fitted with two fuel cell engines, each one capable of delivering up to 30kWe. The fuel cell systems have been designed and supplied by Nedstack. The fuel cell system has been certified by the Germanischer Lloyd/DNV for use in the canal boat.
With the Nedstack hydrogen fuel cells, passengers and residents of Amsterdam can enjoy the canals without the diesel stench, noise and emissions generated by a diesel generator.
The Fuel cell canal boat had its maiden voyage during the 2010 Sail event in Amsterdam. Powered by a hydrogen fuel cell the H2 Nemo can transport up to 87 people with no emissions through the canals of Amsterdam.
HAN people mover
The HAN University is one of the top-rated universities of applied sciences in the Netherlands. It used battery operated vehicles to transport people on their campus. They wanted to convert a small battery electric vehicle (BEV) to a fuel cell vehicle (FCEV). As early as Q2 2006, Nedstack delivered a system with a 2.5 kW stack.
The people mover was the first result of the fuel cell activity from the HAN. Fuel cell technology now is an important part of the curriculum of HAN University.
Nedstack supplied a 2.5kW fuel cell stack and control system for the HAN people mover. It is still being used at the university, among others to train students on the application and use of fuel cells, and to test power management systems.
In a 24/7 business economy, materials must be handled fast and efficiently. This could not be done without tow-cars on airports and forklifts in factories and distribution centers. Currently, tow-cars and forklifts are powered by batteries or internal combustion engines (ICE). Both are far from ideal. Batteries have limited capacity and require regular recharging, which limits productivity. ICEs generate exhaust gasses which limits indoor operability.
PEM fuel cell systems do not have these drawbacks. Fuel cell applications can increase productivity and operability in materials handling situations. At Nedstack we are actively involved in projects to develop fuel cell systems that meet industry demands. One project contained of the development of a PEM fuel cell driven Material handling truck for Schiphol airport. The other consisted of the development of a forklift.
Tow-cars and forklifts are mostly unsuspended. This means that the equipment is subjected to harsh conditions. The projects gave Nedstack first-hand understanding how to integrate our stacks in systems to improve availability, increase productivity and reduce total cost of ownership.
Schiphol Airport tow-car
Every day a huge amount of travelers fly to and from Schiphol airport. This requires a complex logistical process in which baggage tractors and similar vehicles play a vital role. However, these baggage tractors and similar vehicles are the source of approximately 30% of the CO2 produced on Schiphol.
Schiphol already has approximately 80 diesel-electrical vehicles in use. The diesel engine is not allowed to run indoors so the vehicle switches to batteries. Outside the diesel engine will start, emitting harmful substances into the air. Schiphol also has some electric vehicles, but often the distances are too great when using only batteries.
The system has a 8kWe stack, battery pack and a 350 bar hydrogen tank. Due to limitation of the filling station the tank could only be filled to ¾ of its capacity. Nevertheless the tractor had enough capacity to complete a day shift without the need for refuelling. The system including the tank has been designed to fit in the same space as the original diesel pack. This greatly increases the range compared to battery vehicles and reduces emissions (both noise and harmful substances) compared to diesel engines. Operators were very enthusiastic about the modification, enjoying the lack of noise while working.
The Schiphol tow-car was a joint project of Nedstack, Silent Motor and HAN University. Nedstack supplied the fuel cell stack and system technology.
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has integrated two 8kW stacks into a Kalmar ECF-55 forklift. The fuel cell system developed is a triple hybrid (fuel cell, super capacitor and battery).
The system was operated both in laboratory with artificial load, and outdoors installed in a real forklift to gain experience and know-how under real conditions. Outdoor tests included a typical work cycle for a forklift with a 2.4 ton load. Outdoors temperature during the tests varied between -5°C and -15°C, cold enough to confirm the cold-start capabilities of PEM fuel stacks.
Nedstack provided the stacks and integration know-how.